Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) https://www.zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn <p><em>Philosophical Problems in Science</em> (Polish: <em>Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce</em>, abbrev. ZFN) is the oldest Polish journal dedicated to the philosophy in science.</p> <p>ZFN covers a wide range of topics of general interest to those working on philosophical problems involved in and intertwined with modern science (see <a title="Focus and Scope" href="/index.php/zfn/about#focusAndScope" rel="noopener">Focus and Scope</a>).</p> <p>ZFN has originated from a long tradition of Krakow philosophy of nature dating back to the second half of the nineteenth century (see <a title="Journal History" href="/index.php/zfn/about#history" rel="noopener">Journal History</a>). The journal policy is to continue the tradition of mutual discussion between philosophers and scientists.</p> Copernicus Center Press en-US Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) 0867-8286 Philosophy of economics – a school of pluralism and humility https://www.zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/491 Tomasz Kwarciński Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-11-18 2019-11-18 67 7 12 Microfoundations: true and false https://www.zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/479 <p>This article presents an overview and critique of the two leading macroeconomic approaches from the last 70 years: reasoning using high-level aggregates detached from individuals and their choices, and modeling using so-called microfoundations. We judge the validity of both methods, showing their inherent limits and deficiencies as explanatory and predictive tools of economics. We also underline several vital improvements, which are required if the models are supposed to guide policy decisions – even if this means a more modest and less conceited approach.</p> Krzysztof Turowski Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-11-18 2019-11-18 67 15 59 Do social constructivists tell us something real about economics? https://www.zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/475 <p>Social constructivists use to say that economists cannot study objective reality, absolute truth does not exist, and economic knowledge is being constructed, not discovered and it depends on temporary culture. Realists notice and admit social conditions which may affect economic theories and unrealistic assumptions of models, but they claim that these models describe the real world, at least to some extent. The notions of truth and reality are crucial in both of these concepts. In this papar they are analysed based on Hilary Putnam theory developed by Adam Grobler.</p> Bartosz Paweł Kurkowski Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-11-18 2019-11-18 67 61 95 In search of the assumption of economic rationality in Adam Smith’s thought https://www.zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/478 <p>In Adam Smith’s <em>Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations</em> the term ‘rational’ occurs only twice. Neither of these uses assigns the property of rationality either to human beings or to economic agents. Despite that, Smith is widely recognised as the founder of modern mainstream economics, a science which is defined by the assumption of the rationality of an economic agent. This paper aims to locate and discuss the notion of rationality which is implied by Smith’s work. To achieve that a double-track approach is taken. First, the current paper reconstructs Smith’s general view on human nature which was presented mainly in his earlier book <em>The Theory of Moral Sentiments</em>. This is followed by a discussion of Smith’s theses on selected mechanisms which drive the economy as presented in <em>The Wealth of Nations</em>.</p> Krzysztof M. Turek Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-11-18 2019-11-18 67 97 124 The role of state and law in the system of Adam Smith https://www.zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/477 <p>The dominant contemporary interpretation of Adam Smith’s thought endeavors to show his anti-state attitude. According to this interpretation, Smith, as the father of economics would also be an opponent of state interference in the activity of private entities. The purpose of this work is a comprehensive presentation of the social system described by a Scottish philosopher. This task is accomplished by drawing attention to Smith’s views on the state and the law, as well as on his participation in the creation of an area of knowledge known then as political economy.</p> <p>In order to reconcile the seemingly inconsistent views presented in Smith’s most famous works, the main subject of this analysis are the less frequently studied <em>Lectures on Jurisprudence</em>. This book, which offers Smith’s views on the role of the state and law, is the key to the correct reading of the thesis put in <em>Theory of Moral Sentiments</em> and <em>An Inquiry into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of Nations</em>. The social system emerging from these works referred to by Smith as the civil government, can in retrospect be regarded as the progenitor of liberal democracy. The state and the law play a vital role in the economic life of this system.</p> Filip Lubiński Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-11-18 2019-11-18 67 125 152 Value-free economics’ road towar Value-free economics’ road towards epistemological hubris. The use and abuse of mathematics by economists https://www.zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/476 <p>The goal of the article is to substantiate that despite the criticism the paradigm in economics will not change because of the axiomatic assumptions of value-free economics. How these assumptions work is demonstrated on the example of Gary Becker’s economic approach which is analyzed from the perspective of scientific research programme (Lakatos). The author indicates hard core of economic approach (maximization of utility, instrumental rationality) and the protective belt which makes hard core immune from any criticism. This immunity leads economists to believe that they are objective scientists and, consequently, it results in epistemological hubris. Due to its tautological nature (and other problems), economic approach is considered to be a degenerative programme. This conclusion is extended on value-free economics. In spite of these problems, many economists still believe in positive economics and they dismiss normative approaches. It has a negative influence on people (well-being, choices over time). The conclusion of the article is that thanks to axiomatic assumptions economists do not have objective and ironclad methodology and they should accept normative values in their research.</p> Aleksander Ostapiuk Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-11-18 2019-11-18 67 153 202 The problem of the essence and measurement of well-being https://www.zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/481 <p>Well-being is becoming an increasingly popular issue in economics. The aim of the article is to present the concept of well-being and the methods of its measurement and to examine the statistical significance between the results obtained by specific indicators. The article was written based on the meta-analysis of the books and scientific papers on the subject, as well as well-being and welfare measurement reports. The study shows that there is a very wide range of theories and concepts related to well-being which are sometimes exceptive. The most important conclusion from the study is that the correlation between welfare and well-being represented respectively by GDP and HDI is very strong, while the correlation between welfare and life satisfaction as well as well-being and subjective well-being are negligible.</p> Wojciech Rybka Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-11-18 2019-11-18 67 203 248 Believable world of economic models https://www.zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/488 <p>Book review: <span lang="en-GB">Łukasz Hardt, <em>Economics Without Laws. Towards a New Philosophy of Economics</em>, Palgrave Macmillan, Cham, 2017, pp. 220.</span></p> Marcin Gorazda Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-11-18 2019-11-18 67 251 261 Metareflections on macroeconomics and macroeconomic policy https://www.zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/492 <p>Book review: Tomasz Kwarciński, Agnieszka Wincewicz-Price (red.), Metaekonomia II. Zagadnienia z filozofii makroekonomii, Kraków, Copernicus Center Press 2019.</p> Joanna Dzionek-Kozłowska Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-11-18 2019-11-18 67 262 268 Empathy in the service of humanity https://www.zfn.edu.pl/index.php/zfn/article/view/485 <p>Book review: Frans de Waal, <em>Wiek empatii. Jak natura uczy nas życzliwości</em>, tłum. Ł. Lamża, Copernicus Center Press, Kraków 2019, ss. 380.</p> Milena Bogumiła Cygan Copyright (c) 2019 Philosophical Problems in Science (Zagadnienia Filozoficzne w Nauce) http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0 2019-11-18 2019-11-18 67 269 281